Servers/Services as Peers

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.NET Microsoft's .NET consists of a "set of building block services" including Passport.NET (for user authentication) as well as services for file storage, user preference management, calendar management, and many other tasks. The .NET strategy is built around the principle of web services that are built around SOAP's XML messaging framework. The idea is for the internet itself to be the basis of a new operating system that is capable of providing application services previously only available to the desktop. The focus seems to be divided into services for developers, IT professionals and businesses. Microsoft's .NET website provides a simple definition of .NET as well as a number of white papers that are available for review.
BXXP BXXP is an XML-based messaging framework for building application protocols that was used as a starting point for the IETF BEEP (Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol) Working Group's efforts.

BXXP was the brainchild of Marshall Rose, now of Invisible Worlds.
Dynaptics Dynaptics Personal E.ssistant products are designed to analyze visitor behavior within a website and deliver relevant content. The product family consists of the Personal Sales E.ssistant (PSE) and the Personal Information E.ssistant (PIE). The sales model is designed to provide predictive on-screen messages and recommendations based on real-time information and historical sales data. The information model is designed to tailor the content and navigation of a website "on-the-fly" by analyzing the information the visitor is viewing. Personal E.ssistants are available from Dynaptics as stand-alone or hosted applications. More information and an FAQ are also available.
HailStorm HailStorm is a blanket term for a collection of Microsoft technologies, peer-to-peer related and otherwise (e-mail, instant messaging, alerts and notifications, addressbooks and Microsoft's Passport authentication technology) that were announced by Bill Gates as part of Microsoft's .NET platform. Windows XP and Office XP will ship with core elements of HailStorm built into them. The HailStorm architecture is based on SOAP and XML, using common identity, security, and data models for each of its HailStorm services so that they may be accessed from any minimally connected device.

Check out these OpenP2P.com articles about Hailstorm: Hailstorm: Open Web Services Controlled by Microsoft by Clay Shirky and Brewing a HailStorm by Rael Dornfest.
iMaestro iMaestro is focused on e-commerce applications of P2P technology. The first product, iMaestro Interact, offers a peer-to-peer auction network.
Interbind Interbind software supports open, secure, low-cost business-to-business systems based on Web Services delivered across a peer-to-peer network. Web Services are self-contained, modular business applications that can be described, published, located and invoked over the Internet. Interbind software acts to extend and connect various Web Services while routing and translating the data traffic among Web Service users. Interbind recently released its Interbind XML Messaging Server (IBX), available as a free download at its developer website, which includes HTTP 1.1 and SOAP support. Interbind's Messaging Server transports XML-based messages to and from nodes offering Web Services in a peer-to-peer network. Features include: pre-built XML message envelopes that support a variety of message types, Java-to-XML serialization/deserialization, support for secure peer-to-peer connections, and lightweight memory and processor requirements. Use of the Interbind XML Messaging server requires an XML parser that is either SAX2 or DOM compatible and Sun's Java Runtime Environment. Development using the message server requires JDK 1.2 or later.
JXTA Juxtapose (JXTA) was originally one of Bill Joy's research projects aimed at developing a network programming and computing platform able to solve a number of the problems in modern distributed computing. JXTA has since become a community-based open source development platform. The four main concepts of the JXTA project are: the ability to "pipe" from one peer to another, a grouping notion, the ability to monitor and meter, and a security layer. The JXTA Shell is a prototype application that illustrates the use of JXTA Technology. The JXTA Shell permits interactive access to the JXTA platform's building blocks through a simple, text based interface (available on Solaris Operating Environment, Linux, or Microsoft Windows). A Technical Specification provides a description of the architecture and key elements of the Project JXTA technology including: peers, advertisements, messages, pipes and protocols. Demonstrations are available for download. See the FAQ or the documentation page for more details.

Check out OpenP2P.com's Project JXTA Developer Contest.
Meerkat: An Open Wire Service Meerkat is a Web-based syndicated content reader. It is based on Rich Site Summary (RSS), an XML specification used for distributing news, product announcements, discussion threads, and other assorted content as channels. Meerkat provides a simple interface to these stories. While maintaining the original association of a story with a channel, Meerkat's focus is on chronological order -- the latest stories float to the top, regardless of their source.

Meerkat includes an Open API that users and developers can use to incorporate the news feeds into their own sites or web-based applications.
OpenDesign OpenDesign's goal is to create a distributed application infrastructure by combining the best of client-server and P2P architectures to enable a network to automatically reconfigure itself to the needs of the application. This dynamic configuration of the network guarantees that applications and their underlying services, use only the resources they require, but are always available, fault tolerant, and load balanced. This inherent scalability frees applications from the limitations of a single server, cluster, or data center. Services and applications can exist anywhere in the network and share resources across the network.
PeerMetrics The PeerMetrics Peer System is a fully-featured Java peer-to-peer platform for developing distributed services. Strengths include dynamic modular protocol binding, peer and resource identification, discovery, and search, extensible metadata, XML UI definitions, remote service display browsing, and extensive API documentation. The power of the platform and available services greatly simplifies writing peer-to-peer applications. Source is included.
Planet 7 Technologies Planet 7 Technologies is the developer of the XML Network Server, a Java-based host for ecommerce or enterprise application integration networks that enables many-to-many sharing of XML data in real time. The architecture is optimized for handling ecommerce requests generated in conformance with standard XML schemas and Document Type Definitions (DTDs). The requests can be routed based on namespaces, applications, or host names. The system has been made extensible and follows a hub and router model where each XML Network Server can act as a hub. The "router" for connecting resources to hubs is created with what the company calls a "full duplex" (or bi-directional) Application Programming Interface (API) called XML Network Client Objects.

The network scales up by the addition and connection of servers in a modular fashion. Other distributed systems can use XNS as an XML handling interface. Though an agreement with Extensibility, Inc., Planet 7 is bundling a trial version of Turbo XML (which includes XML Authority, XML Instance and XML Console) with the XNS development package to expose developers to a complete network application development environment.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a lightweight, XML-based, protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. Its primary uses are message passing and remote procedure call (RPC) -- causing a remote computer to perform a computation.

SOAP is XML-based and has three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses.
The Mind Electric The Mind Electric is developing GLUE, a Java based modular platform for building and invoking distributed web services. GLUE has a small footprint (it's distributed as an embeddable 200K JAR file) and can expose any unmodified Java object as a web service. It is designed to be platform, protocol and transport neutral, and to interoperate with Apache SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), Microsoft .NET Framework and IBM Web Services Toolkit (WSTK). GLUE includes a micro-web server, servlet engine, SOAP processor, XML parser (Electric XML), dynamic Web Structure Definition Language (WDSL) generator, Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI) client, UDDI server, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) support, and an XML persistent storage system. GLUE services can be deployed via a browser, runtime APIs, or drag and drop, can be dynamically installed across a network, or stored in JAR files and loaded remotely. The Mind Electric site includes the online GLUE Application Programming Interface (API).
UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) The Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) specification is an industry initiative lead by Ariba, IBM, and Microsoft that defines a platform-independent, open framework for describing services, discovering businesses and integrating business services over the Internet.

UDDI was designed to provide existing directories and search engines with a centralized source for programmatic descriptions of business Web services.

The UDDI Business Registry will allow Businesses to publish their preferred terms of conducting e-commerce or other transactions for other UDDI-enabled agents to "discover".
WSDL The Web Services Description Language 1.1 (WSDL) grammar describes Web services, including: interface and end points (or ports), what a service can do, where it resides and how to invoke it via machine-understandable terms targeted for automated distributed communications between Web applications. WDSL can extend Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), and this Note describes and includes bindings for using WSDL in combination with SOAP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) for remote process invocation. WDSL is itself extensible, with a common binding mechanism that may be used to produce binding extensions for other protocols.
XDegrees XDegrees is developing software that will manage the flow of metadata in Peer-To-Peer networks. CEO (and Adforce founder) Michael Tanne and co-founders Anand Rajaraman and Venky Harinarayan (also co-founders of the Junglee shopping bot company) think P2P metadata, if utilized, can be more valuable than the data itself. In an environment where information and applications will be pushed out onto the network, rather than residing on servers, the software will also provide infrastructure services such as caching, messaging, naming and routing. The platform will also enable the development of P2P applications utilizing existing web development technologies, such as Active Server Pages (ASP) and Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts.
XML-RPC XML-RPC was designed to provide simple cross-platform distributed computing. It uses XML and remote procedure calls to communicate information from one server to another. A precursor to SOAP, it was developed in early 1998 by Dave Winer of Userland, Don Box of DevelopMentor, and Microsoft. The XML-RPC spec and implementations helped develop an awareness that XML was more than just a document format and could be used for standards-based transaction processing.
XOBJEX XOBJEX is a simple and lightweight application for peer-to-peer collaboration, based on Sun's J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition). This very compact system (26KB) uses a HTTP "listener" and a HTTP "agent" to transfer XML-based commands across networks or the Internet using port 80, the default port for HTTP. XOBJEX can be used to create web services for collaboration and interoperability between networked devices, and can automatically "discover" when new services are available on the network. More information about XOBJEX features and an online demonstration are available for review.