Internet Operating System

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.NET Microsoft's .NET consists of a "set of building block services" including Passport.NET (for user authentication) as well as services for file storage, user preference management, calendar management, and many other tasks. The .NET strategy is built around the principle of web services that are built around SOAP's XML messaging framework. The idea is for the internet itself to be the basis of a new operating system that is capable of providing application services previously only available to the desktop. The focus seems to be divided into services for developers, IT professionals and businesses. Microsoft's .NET website provides a simple definition of .NET as well as a number of white papers that are available for review.
PeerMetrics The PeerMetrics Peer System is a fully-featured Java peer-to-peer platform for developing distributed services. Strengths include dynamic modular protocol binding, peer and resource identification, discovery, and search, extensible metadata, XML UI definitions, remote service display browsing, and extensive API documentation. The power of the platform and available services greatly simplifies writing peer-to-peer applications. Source is included.
REBOL REBOL (Relative Expression-Based Object Language) is a messaging language developed by the designer of the Amiga OS, Carl Sassenrath. REBOL is currently serving as the platform for REBOL/Express, a distributed computing application for the Internet that consists of REBOL/Link on the client side and REBOL/Server, a lightweight management server that compliments the existing web server. The REBOL/Core kernel runs on over 40 different operating systems, supports most third-party applications and data sources, and enables direct P2P connections, file synchronization, collaboration and messaging. A technical overview, FAQ and a selection of application downloads for REBOL are also available for review.
ROKU Roku develops a commercial peer-to-peer computing platform and products that enable people to view, use, and share information across all wired or wireless devices and networks.

The Roku platform, written in Java and XML, consists of three categories of components that give Roku software application and device independence, as well as "plug-and-play" flexibility. The Roku Platform uses context to link together relevant information for people —- combining it with peer-to-peer networking.
The Chord Project Chord is a "flexible lookup primitive" intended for use in decentralized peer-to-peer environments based on the SFS user-level file system toolkit. The Chord primitive maps keys to servers in a decentralized manner and requires only log(N) messages to perform the mapping where N is the number of nodes in the system. Although Chord has been used primarily to build peer-to-peer file systems, it has the potential to be used in a wide variety of peer-to-peer applications. An implementation suitable for distribution is in the works. A tutorial and lots of great publications are currently available.
Thinkstream Thinkstream's distributed information and e-commerce platform and Tadaaa! client software provide small to medium-sized merchants with the tools to configure and organize a "public information network" (online marketplace) quickly, easily and without requiring any substantial modifications to their existing network infrastructure. Thinkstream's own online marketplace provides direct, real-time access to product information and pricing, as well as detailed rating and comparison information about its participating vendors. The Tadaaa! file-sharing application allows users to exchange just about any file type (document, video, music, database, images or even spreadsheets) within a secure environment. The program's search technology is capable of searching within file content for metadata or to satisfy a variety of other, more complex kinds of queries. A white paper describing Thinkstream's Distributed Internet Architecture and the theoretical justifaction behind it (A Technology Review of the Next-Generation Internet Architecture: Thinkstream’s Distributed Internet Architecture -- 35 pages, Requires Adobe Acrobat) is also available for download.
Virtual Access Networks Virtual Access Networks manufactures The Van, an XML, XSLT, SOAP and Cocoon-based solution that utilizes Microsoft's Intellimirror PC Migration technology to enable companies to move settings and data from one computer to another intact, via a wireless, Web or network connection. The VAN's software migration tools can be used to restore user settings after an operating system upgrade or facilitate the OS migration of an entire company. A hard drive crash inspired the founder to use extensible tools to apply fluid solutions to the field of data storage. The resulting XML-based core technology is known as Access Technology and defined as "the vendor-neutral, device-agnostic, and cross-platform delivery of information and data."