Rem acu tetugit Paul Prescod. IOW, He nailed the point, as he so often does. I think the idea of merging header and body into a single document is the single biggest flaw in SOAP. Yes, SOAP section 5 (the RPC datatyping section) was probably the largest overall mistake in SOAP’s evoution (as even heavyweight SOAP boosters have started admitting now), but it is far less fundamenal than SOAP’s monolithic design. I think the proper “fix” is to have XML in the HTTP payload as the message only, and the SOAPish headers to be moved as HTTP extension headers using XML external parsed entities in the values.